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A massive Mapuche insurrection that began in 1553 resulted in Valdivia's death and the destruction of many of the colony's principal settlements.Subsequent major insurrections took place in 1598 and in 1655.Serving as a sort of frontier garrison, the colony found itself with the mission of forestalling encroachment by both the Mapuche and Spain's European enemies, especially the British and the Dutch.Buccaneers and English adventurers menaced the colony in addition to the Mapuche, as was shown by Sir Francis Drake's 1578 raid on Valparaíso, the colony's principal port.the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief ("cacique") called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.About 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile.The arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper.
They formed part of the foreshock sequence for the 1960 Valdivia earthquake, the largest recorded earthquake in history.
In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific (1879–83) after defeating Peru and Bolivia.
In the 1960s and 1970s the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil.
Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognized the agricultural potential of Chile's central valley, and Chile became part of the Spanish Empire.
Conquest took place gradually, and the Europeans suffered repeated setbacks.