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In order to understand the Talmud, that compilation so full of folk-lore and the survivals of popular customs mingled indiscriminately with science, philosophy and religion, not alone learning, but also a sympathetic appreciation of its history and true nature are necessary. Even two thousand copies of the Zohar, being printed at the time under the patronage of Vittorio EUano himself, would have been added by them to their plunder had not Sixtus Sinensis interfered. ^'■*'Emek (L.), 138 ; (W.) note aog ; Giaetz, IX : 382-385. No one in Italy before or after dared publish this work, a fact which illustrates the liberty enjoyed by this publisher ander episcopal protection ; with the death of the printer the work here ceased after 156a. Carmoly, Anna/en dtr Htbrdischtit Typographic von Siva di 7'rtnlo). i I J r I 49 desired orders to the Podestas of Cremona and Lodi on July 29, 1859.'" Following these events, the Inquisitor in Alessandria started an anti-Talmud movement, and in August forced the Jews to surren- der many books; then, though the Senate of Milan sent letters remonstrating with him. At the Council's eighteenth session, begun on February 26, 1562, the question of books was taken up, and a committee appointed to devise means for amending the indices as new books might appear. B., V : 1Z7, slates that from thi* time on Prague was subject to censorship ; against this Zuni, Zur Gischichle, 269, holds that thesimilar statement of Hock, " censorship was practised [there] in 1558," is too general and must be maleria!! Self-censorship, of course, was practised ; state supervision of the Hebrew press became general after 1630 (Ziini, Rilus, 14B). '" Whether censorship by Geraldino or another was still maintained in states cannot he stated. I I I lightening many of their civil burdens,'" induced them to seize. Joseph Cronti, who, Uke Fr, Petrus de Trevio before him, had been " Lecturer to the Jews " in Rome, was similarly ordered to make use of the Sepfier ha-zikkuk.'" Dated 16, the signature of Gir. As fo Cj writings not condemned in the indices, no book should in any wai be held in possession without having first been taken to the Mas^ ter of the Sacred Palace for approval ; all Bishops and Inquisitors were ordered to be constantly on the watcli to detect violations of this law, which were to be punished by a fine of 100 scudi and- seven years' imprisonment. But what in reality was much more ominous, although at the time much less apparent in its effects, was the attention which, in the XII cen- tury, Peter the Venerable of Cluny, philosopher and Arabic scholar, gave to the Talmud. ) las Udine." however, the Emperor Ferdinand ordered that they be returned to their owners.'" CHAPTER VII COUNCIL OF TRENT— STERNER MEASURES OF PIUS V- TALMUD — DOMINICO IROSOLIMITANO At the death of Paul IV there was great rejoicing, not only among Jews, but also among Christians, who hated him thor- oughly, and by various ways tried to heap insults on the memory of the man whom they had so feared.'" In the reaction which fol- lowed, the College of Cardinals decided on raising to the throne one who was not a Dominican ; on December i6 their choice fell upon Giovanni Angelo de Medici, Cardinal of Milan (Pius IV), As far as he could, while the Jesuits and sterner churchmen were still all powerful, he followed the policy of his native state in regard to censorship.'" To cite an instance, the Cremona publish- ing house was now permitted to bring out the Siyyuni, the incom- pleted edition of which had been burnt by Sixtus of Sienna; and other books of the period bear no censors' or Inquisitors' names."* Therefore, when the Pope summoned a great council of over 250 members at Trent to legislate on several subjects, and when Cardinal Ercole Gonzaga, Bishop of Mantua, was made its first president in 1561, Jewish hopes for literary freedom ran high. containing a collec- tion of diflicult pasmges from the Pentateuch, with their cipoaitioii G taken from various wriiiogs (generally cabbalistic), was printed first in Wilmeisdorf, i63i, then in Amsterdam. Under similar penalties the Jews were forbidden in any way to explain or teach, openly or privately, such errors as were con- tained in the classes of works mentioned, and Christians were likewise ordered not to aid in the violation of either rule. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is allowed. Steinschneidet, Hebraiuhe Bibliograpkit (ffa-matiir), Berlin, 1858-1882. A little more than a month after the affair of Mont- pelier, according to Hillel ben Samuel, an auto-da-fe of Talmudic and other works was held in Paris, at which 12,000 volumes were publicly destroyed " ; and soon Hebrew books were looked upon " Lea, 1; 554. They urged the injustice of confiscating books which had before been permitted in the province by the Inquisitors, and many of which were signed in the censor's own handwriting. Then in Cremona and Lodi the cus- tomary confiscation of books took place on the 10th of Ab i They answered him : " Not so ; BSh I shall die, for it is written, ' Lo ! Bibliothek befindtich." If this refers to a p Hnled edition of the nkkuk, it is the only such notice which I have foond. One of these is entirely in his handwriting, was finished by him on August 8, 1596, and given to the Cardinal of Cremona (then Commissioner of the Holy Office)."" A second copy, begun as early as 1594, contains various handwritings, but has corrections and an index by Irosolimitano. Of additional writings prohibited it is interes U ing to note, in a decree of March 16, 1621, " Don Angelo Gabriello Anguisciol*, Delia Hebiaica'ntedaglia detta Maghen David & Abraham.

— Franz Heinrich Reusch, Die Indices Li^orum Prohi Htarum des ttten Jakr- hunderts, Tabingen 1886, (Stuttgart Literarischer verein. The " Counselor " was a sort of legal adviser, the " Notary " a secretary, and the " Familiars " the much dreaded apparitors, messengers, spies, and bravos who carried out the orders of their superiors. had condemned and consigned to the flames " ; III, Books dealing with religious ceremonies, and explaining the Bible. The Frankists, named after their leader, Jacob Frank, were a Jewish sect of anti-Talmudists who followed the Zdhar, and who declared before Bishop Dembowski that they were almost Christians, inasmuch as they believed in the Trinity. died, and neither the meek and affable Clement XIII., (1758-1769),"' nor the accomplished Clement XIV. g., the fint 3r a copy of Nahman'a r 133 Irosolimi Uno, 1597, Fra Lnigi da Bologna, 1597, Cia. Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. Some of the North French Rabbis joined in the movement, and the contest between the Maimonists and the Anti-maimonists became most bitter (beginning of 1232). In many of the large cities of southern France like Mont- pelier where the Inquisition had been as firmly established as in Italy and where Dominican cloisters were situated, supposed heretics were being burned by the zealous friars ; and it was to the friars that Solomon of Montpelier turned. '" Such, for instance, as contain only a few haretieal phrases, the essentisl portions J being withoa C suspicion. They might even have been happy to submit to the further restriction, imposed in his first measure against them, forbidding them to buy or sell a single Hebrew book without special written permission.'" This was only a warn- ing, however, of what was to come, an edict repealing throughout the Catholic world alt privileges granted by Pius IV (Apr, 19, 1566)."* In non-papal Italy, Florence and the rest of Tuscany, Ferrara, Mantua, Pesaro, and Urbino, papal decrees still seemed to be altogether disregarded, and here the Jews found refuge when later expelled from the rest of Italy, as they were from Genoa on June 15, 1567. Modena, a Franciscan, whose first appearance as a censor wa^^ 1620-1621,"* Camillo Jagel, also, whose name is found occasionally with the date 1617, was again very active from 1619 to 1620 or 1621. He wrote to them concerning those clauses in the brief of Clement VIII (Aug. We encourage the use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. He requested that they proceed against Jewish heretics as they did against their own and charged that most of the Jews of Provence had been led astray by Maimonides. I I 46 sented probably to the State-Governor, and urged that this was a violation of the privileges granted them by the Senate (March, '559)-'" After the Inquisitor-General, on April r, prolonged the term in which forbidden books might be given up and punishment be avoided,"' the Governor of Milan ordered the City-Governor of Cremona (Don Alvaro de Luna) to keep in his own possession all the Talmud copies so given up, but to return all books which were not included in the Index of Rome; furthermore, the Jews in future were not to be troubled on account of them (April 6, 1559).'" When the Governor of Cremona sought to obey, the In- quisitor was bold enough to refuse to deliver to him the Talmud copies; some of the non-Talmudic works, however, he gave back to their owners before April 7.'" From this it can be seen that the policy of the Pope and that of the state officers were not entirely in agreement ; and the Inquisi- tion set about devising means to force the Governor, by pressure from various sources, to agree to a destruction of the Talmud; for this it was deemed most advisable to stir up the people. Milan, too, finally proved a place of safety, but only after a time of doubt. His appointment at this period was in the Marches of Ancona, part of the estate of the Church *" ; this fact shows either that the decrees of the Roman court were disregarded even in papal terri- tory, or that the oft-repeated ruling that Jews should censor their own books was understood as a prohibition of such work by In- quisitors only. 17, 1593) and in the decree of the Index Commission (Aug. Maintain attribution Tht Goog Xt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find additional materials through Google Book Search. Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. — Ersch und Giuber, Allgcmntu Encyclopadii der Wissniie/ia/tn$ und JCilns If, Leipzig, 1818-1850. — Joseph Yia-Co Yiea,' Emek ha-Bakhak, edited bjr M, li Ctteris, Ciacow, Josepli Fischer, 1895, Emtk (W). The Dominicans and Franciscans were per- suaded ; and at the eager command of the papal cardinal legate, at least in Montpelier a house search was made for Maimonist writ- ings. cities and to receive contributions (June 4, 1558)."* Whatever success he may have had, all hopes were shattered early in the following year, when the first papal " Index of Prohibited Books'" appeared.'" The prohibition against the " Talmud of the Hebrews — all its glosses, notes, interpretations, and expositions" was renewed '" ; and though this was not as severe as Valdes' Spanish index of this year, which forbade all Hebrew books, and all those written in any language containing Hebrew ceremonies,"' still the uselessness of all endeavors in Rome was realized when Cardinal Ghislieri, the Inquisitor-General, ordered another burning of the Talmud."* The question of forbidden books was reopened also in Milan by these measures. Accordingly " the monks became as thorns in the side of the Jews of Cremona, and brought them into evil repute with the inhabitants of the city." "° Two of these Dominicans were Hieronymus of Vercelli and Sixtus of Siena; the former was already a vicar, or commissioner, assisting the Inquisitor-General of Cremona'" ; the latter, who was now appointed to a similar office, was an apostate well known to the Jews from his previous fanatical preaching against them throughout Italy.'" On April 7,'" these Dominicans wrote also to the Governor of Milan, suggesting that the Talmud be consigned to the flames because of its blasphemies against Jesus.'" In resisting this the Governor remained firm ; and, though he yielded so far as to agree that the Talmud copies should remain provisionally in charge of the Inquisition, he decreed that 118). Though the Governor was still en- tirely friendly, the Spanish King, Philip II, was a stern Catholic ; and not only was the Inquisition eager to support the Pope, but in place of a liberal, a reactionist, Carl Borromeo, filled the Cardi- nal's office. For at this very time (1619-1621) Inquisitors were again commanded not to busy themselves with expurgation, but to proceed against any Jew charged with possessing a for- bidden book, in particular a copy of the Talmud."' Under Gregorius XV (1631-1623) there can be no doubt that expurgation by others than Inquisitors was sanctioned by the Roman court, for of the three censors known in this period, Vincentius Mattelica {1622)"', Isaiah of Rome (1623), and Pet- rus de Trevio {1623), the last worked in the city of Rome itself. 24, 1596) by which it was specifically ordered that expurgation must be undertaken by the Jews only (Dec. Do not assume that just because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries. — Bmtk habacha von R, Joseph ha-Cohen, ilbersetit und mit Noten versehen von Dr. All those found were brought together, and in December, 1233, took place the first public, official burning of Hebrew books," This example was soon followed in other places, and it seems that the movement was extended to include all classes of Jewish writings. As soon as a copy of the Index reached the city of Milan, the Senate addressed a letter on the general subject of prohibited books to the Governor, Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordua, Duke of Sessa. The famous Cremona Academy was closed : and the further loss of Jewish influence Is shown by the fact that when an edict appeared ordering the Jews of Milan to wear the distinctive yellow cap, it was enforced. verzeichnct unter .^.nonymus seilus Italui ; I.ibrorum hebraiconim liber expui^lorius, in quo SQpra 480 Hebrajorum libri ah crroribus et imprecationibns contra Chris Lianos eipiirgantor, Mantua;, 1696; als handschriftlich in der Vatican, nnd Barbcrin. He was a Dominican " Master of Sacred Theology," and had been lecturer to the Jews as late as 1619 at least. Rudolfi, Master of the Sacred Palace, entrusted to him a copy of the Sipher ha-zikkuk,^n A ordered him, having corrected Hebrew" books in accordance with its instructions, to sign his name iir| each work so corrected.'" •" See Appendix. The Talmud and oilier works previously placed Index of course remained forbidden. 19, 1624)."* Despite this, in 1626 Renatus of Modena was appointed to make the third revision of their books,"' and that this time thoroughness was attempted is shown by the apparent use of the Sipher ha-zikkuk, a copy of which was corrected and dedicated to the Duke of Modena and Reggio by Renatus in the same year.'" His work, however, marks the end of this very active period of expurgation ; excepting Antonio di Medicis Firenzi, 1628-1629, perhaps in Cremona,"* no censor's name is recorded until the Hebrew books in Rome were subjected to another correction.

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